Haemorrhage (bleeding) is a problem during surgery for a number of reasons:
- It obscures the surgical field
- It may cause hypovolaemic shock and death
- It provides a medium for bacterial growth
- If left, it forms haematomas in dead space, inhibiting proper healing, and further increasing the risk of infection by providing a growth medium for bacteria.
Haemorrhage should not induce panic, but the blood loss should be controlled as quickly, completely and with as little trauma, as possible. This may be done using the following three techniques: