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  1. Home
  2. Advanced Anaesthesia for Surgical or Prolonged Procedures (EU21)
  3. Monitoring the cardiovascular system during surgical or prolonged procedures

Monitoring the cardiovascular system during surgical or prolonged procedures

To minimise the risk of circulatory failure, the cardiovascular system should be monitored during anaesthesia. Heart rate and rhythm can be monitored in most species, and in larger animals, this can be done either by palpating a peripheral pulse or by use of an oesophageal stethoscope.