Collection of urine

Urine samples may be obtained by sampling during voluntary urination, by catheterisation, by direct puncture of the bladder or, if some contamination of the sample with faecal and other material is acceptable, by use of a metabolic cage. Metabolic cages designed for all of the common laboratory species are available commercially or may be manufactured “on-site” to meet particular requirements. If large volumes of an animal’s urine output are to be collected, a metabolic cage of the appropriate design should be used.